Thursday, March 19, 2020

Cost Reduction Strategy The WritePass Journal

Cost Reduction Strategy Introduction Cost Reduction Strategy ). Horizontal integration Supermarkets have economies of scope when they offer a variety of products or services that do not comprise the usual basic goods and services available in supermarket stores (Abernathy et al, 2000). Such products and services may include ready cooked meals, financial services (such as retail banking), fuel stations, clothing and furniture, among other diverse provisions through a single service infrastructure, the store. These not only meet today’s busy shopper’s preference for a one-stop shop, but also lead to the provision of a complementary variety of products concentrated on the supermarkets core competence (Hines et al, 2004). This results in the distribution of costs over a wide and diverse range of products resulting in overall savings. The expansion of stores such as Morrisons, Tesco and Sainsbury into various service-provision segments (demand-driven diversification) so as to appeal to the modern consumer illustrates this strategy (Morrisons, 2012). A supermarket chain may also pursue related diversification building upon and extending existing capability, resources or expertise to achieve greater competitiveness. Cost savings are enabled when a business transfers expertise in one business to a new business, as well as in the businesses sharing operational skills and know-how, facilities, equipment or other existing assets including intangible assets such as corporate core competence (Handï ¬ eld and Nichols, 2002). This can be illustrated by the entry of supermarket chains such as Morrisons, Tesco and Sainsbury into the convenience store segment in pursuit of customer preference for smaller stores and small frequent shopping trends. This venture is in order to supplement waning revenues of larger stores (Morrisons, 2012). Outsourcing The progress of the general-purpose technology such as information technology (IT) enables the reduction of market transaction costs which leads to increased capacity for outsourcing (Abernathy et al, 2000). Outsourcing for a supermarket chain may entail contracting suppliers to undertake time-consuming and logistically challenging tasks such as warehousing and distribution, as well as new services such as the ready-cooked food segments. Such a strategy is necessitated if the existing mode of in-house performance of these tasks is more costly than obtaining it through market transactions or some form of long term contractual relationship (Hines et al, 2004). Efficiency is thereby enhanced in the conduct of the supermarket’s core activities, reducing costs associated with outsourced tasks and enhancing potential revenues increases. Product or service redesign Many supermarket chains are seeking to tap into new segments such as the online marketplace not only to meet customer preferences but also to reduce costs associated with its usual processes (Abernathy et al, 2000). In this customers order for product items which are then sent to their stated locations cutting off a number of processes that were hitherto undertaken thereby enabling significant savings. Morrisons, Tesco and Sainsbury, among other supermarket chains are pursuing such new market segments in pursuit of enhanced competitiveness and customer preference (Morrisons, 2012). Airline We consider an airline whose business provides basic services of passenger travel including scheduling, preparation and planning for flights, check-in, actual flight to destinations, and customer service. Pursuit of scope economics, outsourcing and product or service redesign which are the cost reduction methods focused upon in this paper are herein discussed with regard to an airline business. Economies of scope In this regard, vertical and horizontal integration mechanisms are discussed outlining their contribution to cost reduction. Vertical integration Vertical integration for an airline may entail the uptake of activities beyond its usual scope such as ticketing commonly undertaken by local service providers along its supply chain. Progress into such fronts is greatly enhanced by developments in internet technologies which enable customers to book flights, buy and print out tickets online, reducing the need for staff and investment on facilities dedicated to this task (Abernathy et al, 2000). This removes the costs of commissions paid out to the service providers as well as related organizational costs resulting in cost savings and greater efficiency. Horizontal integration To achieve economies of scope and thereby reductions in cost, an airline might venture into the cargo segment, customizing some of its existing planes for this purpose and delegating some staff under its organizational structure to run processes associated with cargo handling and transport. Through this related diversification of operations, the firm is able to build upon or extend its existing capability, resources or areas of expertise to achieve greater competitiveness (Handï ¬ eld and Nichols, 2002). An airline could also pursue mergers or scope acquisitions, to enhance or extend its product portfolio. This is a common trend in the industry with airlines frequently collaborating and coordinating their activities to achieve efficiency gains as well as to widen their geographical markets, reaching to routes across the globe and specific markets served by partner airlines which might not be feasible for it as a single entity (VBA, 2011). It has also become a common trend for airlines to invest in hotels and other facilities in the hospitality industry so as to tap onto an existing demand, as well as to reduce their costs in cases of delays and other unforeseen circumstances which usually result in added costs for the airline. This strategy turns the airlines previous challenges into strengths, as well as providing a revenue stream from related divestiture. Horizontal integration can be illustrated by Virgin airlines in its strategic alliances with Etihad Airways and Delta Air Lines which enhance its reach to the TransPacific Los Angeles route and the Abu Dhabi route, its gateway to Europe, Africa and the Middle East, with the collaboration benefiting all the partner airlines (VBA, 2011). Outsourcing Outsourcing for an airline is undertaken to streamline operations and enhance service quality (Wynstra et al., 2001). Tasks such as aircraft maintenance and ground support, as well as food processing for service on-board are labour-intensive and specialized tasks that can be outsourced if costs of contracting them are favourable. This would enable the airline to enhance focus on customer service and operations related to flight reducing overheads and other cost requirements. An example is Navitaire, a service supplier for airlines, which offers an extensive global distribution suite enabling low-cost reservations which has enabled the improvement of profitability especially among the low-cost airlines using the service, lower operational and distribution costs   and generation of ancillary revenues (Abernathy et al, 2000). Product/service redesign To enhanced service offerings in the competitive business environment and, as well, to rein in on rising costs, it is incumbent upon airline companies to conduct frequent network reviews, fleet realignments, operational integration so as to ensure that they remain profitable, effective and efficient in their processes. The company in the redesign and realignment should be bold enough to undertake thought-out exit from the non-profitable routes lowering its liabilities and costs. An example is Virgin Australia’s endeavour at restructuring in 2011 following its poor performance evident in its 2010 financial results (VBA, 2011). Conclusion For sustainability, the aim of the cost-cutting strategy is to maximize efficiency without compromising growth potential. To achieve this, companies need to identify core competencies upon which focus is enhanced and efficiency improved, with the non-core functions being trimmed and consolidated to achieve reduction in unnecessary costs (Hines et al, 2004). Such savings can be reinvested in critical assets, enhancing core competencies and thereby improving overall efficiency. References Abernathy, F., J., Dunlop, and J., Hammond, 2000. â€Å"Retailing and supply chains in the information age.† In: Technology in Society, Vol. 22, pp. 5-31. Campbell, A., 1992. Building Core Skills. In: Andrew Campbell and Kathleen Luchs: Strategic Synergy. London: Butterworth Heinemann. Handï ¬ eld, R., and E., Nichols, 2002. Supply Chain Redesign: Transforming Supply Chains into Integrated Value Systems. Financial Times. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Hill, M., R., Ireland, and R.., Hoskisson, 2001. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization. Fourth Edition. South-Western College Publishing, Hines, P., M., Holweg, and N., Rich, 2004. â€Å"Learning to evolve: a review of contemporary lean thinking.† In: International Journal of Operations Production Management, Vol. 24 No. 10, pp. 994-1012. Morrisons, 2012. Food with thought: Corporate responsibility review 2011/12. Wm Morrisons Supermarkets PLC. Sanchez, R., 2000. â€Å"Modular architectures, knowledge assets and organizational learning: new management processes for product creation.† In: International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 19, No 6. Salvador, F., C., Forza, and M., Rungtusanatham, 2002. â€Å"Modularity, product variety, production volume, and component sourcing: theorizing beyond generic prescriptions.† In: Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 20, pp. 549-75. Silverman, B., 1999. â€Å"Technological resources and the direction of corporate diversification: Toward an integration of the Resource-Based View and Transaction Cost Economics.† In: Management Science, 45 (8), 1109–1124. VBA financial report, 2011. Virgin Australia group of companies. 30th June. Viewed from: virginaustralia.com/au/en/about-us/media/2011/VA-FY11-ASX/ Womack, J., and D., Jones, 2003. Lean Thinking, 2nd ed., Free Press Business, London. Wynstra, F., A., Weele, and M., Weggemann, 2001. â€Å"Managing supplier involvement in product development: three critical issues.† In: European Management Journal, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 157-66. Hampson, , 1999. â€Å"Lean Production and the Toyota Production System: the Case of the Forgotten Production Concepts.† In: Economics and Industrial Democracy, Volume 20: 369-391

Monday, March 2, 2020

Meet Ulysses (Odysseus), the Hero Homers Odyssey

Meet Ulysses (Odysseus), the Hero Homers Odyssey Ulysses is the Latin form of the name Odysseus, the hero of Homers Greek epic poem The Odyssey. The Odyssey is one of the greatest works of classical literature and is one of two epic poems attributed to Homer. Its characters, images, and story arc are integrated into many more contemporary works; for example, James Joyces great modernist work Ulysses uses the structure of The Odyssey to create a unique and complex work of fiction. About Homer and The Odyssey The Odyssey was written in about 700 BCE and was intended to be recited or read aloud. To make this task easier, most characters and many objects are provided with epithets: short phrases uses to describe them each time they are mentioned. Examples include rosy-fingered dawn, and gray-eyed Athena. The Odyssey includes 24 books and 12,109 lines written in a poetic meter called dactylic hexameter. The poem was probably written in columns on parchment scrolls. It was first translated into English in 1616. Scholars are not in agreement as to whether Homer actually wrote or dictated the entire 24 books of The Odyssey. In fact, there is even some disagreement about whether Homer was a real historical man (though it is probable that he did exist). Some believe that Homers writings (including a second epic poem called The Iliad) were actually the work of a group of authors. The disagreement is so significant that the debate about Homers authorship has been given the name The Homeric Question. Whether or not he was the sole author, however, it seems likely that a Greek poet named Homer played a major role in its creation. The Story of The Odyssey The story of The Odyssey begins in the middle. Ulysses has been away for almost 20 years, and his son, Telemachus, is searching for him. In the course of the first four books, we learn that Odysseus is alive. In the second four books, we meet Ulysses himself. Then, in books 9-14, we hear of his exciting adventures during his odyssey or journey. Ulysses spends 10 years trying to get back home to Ithaca after the Greeks win the Trojan War.   On his way home, Ulysses and his men encounter various monsters, enchanters, and dangers. Ulysses is known for his cunning, which he uses when his men find themselves stuck in the cave of the Cyclops Polyphemus. However, Ulysses trick, which includes blinding Polyphemus, puts Ulysses on the bad side of the Cyclops father, Poseidon (or Neptune in the Latin version). In the second half of the story, the hero has reached his home in Ithaca. Upon arriving, he learns that his wife, Penelope, has turned away more than 100 suitors. He plots and takes revenge on the suitors who have been wooing his wife and eating his family out of hearth and home.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Analyse the role of peer and self-assessment in the assessment process Essay

Analyse the role of peer and self-assessment in the assessment process - Essay Example In case of weakness, they learn from their mistakes and study how to tame or counter them. This learning method helps to remove the notion that learning is just a passive process where students listen to someone and get what he says. Here one listens to themselves and their peers. This process makes students more involved in the learning process. The more involved they are, the more effective the learning process is. David klob defines self-assessment learning as a process a spiral learning way, which takes into consideration all the fundamentals of learning. These are thinking, reflecting, experiencing, and acting. This makes it very effective (Lippincott, J. 1999, 67). This learning method also helps one to know the requirements that they need in order to achieve a certain goal. Having known their strengths and weakness, this is easier since they know the target they have to set for certain disciplines. They tend to know their expectations, and how to achieve them. Self-assessment can be used in two ways. It can be used in a summative or formative way. In most cases, it is used formatively. In formative ones, peer sets their standards for them; whereas, summative mostly includes the use of group work to set ones target (Catherine. 2011, 25). Lippincott, J. K., 1999. Collaboration Between Librarians And Information Technologists A Case Study Employing Kolbs Experiential Learning Theory, Thesis (Ph. D.)--University Of Maryland at College

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Pharmacology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

Pharmacology - Assignment Example In these tissues, CD243 helps protect the tissue from cytotoxic effects of toxins. Further still, P-gp promotes the excretion of drugs into the bile ducts of the liver, excretion of drugs into urine, and excretion of drugs into the capillaries of the BBB (Schinkel et al., 1995; Horn & Philip, 2004). Different studies have been conducted in which various inhibitors of P-gp (MDR1) have been used to evaluate the bioavailability of drugs following the inhibition of MDR1. In one such study, the investigators used Dipyridamole to inhibit MDR1. The study hypothesized that inhibition of dipyridamole inhibition will result in increased bioavailability of digoxin. The study found out that dipyridamole increases the absorption of digoxin at the intestine and the plasma levels of digoxin were increased (Celine et al., 2003). In another study, the effect of MDR1 inhibition was measured on the effect of drug interaction between digoxin and quinidine. Quinidine enhances plasma concentration of digoxin by inhibiting MDR1. The co-administration of quinidine and digoxin resulted in an elevated concentration of digoxin and reduced excretion in urine (Fromm et al., 1999). Another study on mice indicated that absence of MDR 1 resulted in reduced excretion of digoxin (Funakoshi et al., 2003), dexame thasone, and Cyclosporin A (Schinkel et al., 1995). Rifampin is an inducer of CD243. A study conducted to determine the bioavailability of digoxin following the administration of rifampin revealed that the plasma concentration of digoxin dropped significantly. The drop has been accounted for by the understanding that rifampin induces the activity of MDR 1. JP 789 inhibits the action of MDR1 and therefore it can be hypothesized that during the interaction study, JP789 will result in an increase in the plasma concentration of digoxin and its reduced excretion in kidney

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Film Review of Blades of Glory Essay -- essays research papers

Blades of Glory, directed by Josh Gordon and Will Speck, is a hilarious comedy that turns figure skating into one big joke. This movie was so over-the-top, it was over over-the-top, but it kept the whole theater laughing throughout the entire movie, which is exactly what it was made to do. The movie’s plot is not very intricate, but it really doesn’t need to be. It’s about 2 Men’s Singles Figure Skaters that are the complete opposites of each other. Chazz Michael Michaels (Will Ferrell) is the notorious bad boy in figure skating, he’s very sexual and all the ladies swoon over him. Jimmy MacElroy (Jon Heder) is the good boy that pays attention to technical detail and precision. These two skaters compete against each other and end up getting a tie score for first place and the gold medal. Then, while on the podium, they start to bicker, and it leads to a brawl between the two of them. Because of that, they end up getting banned from Men’s Singles for the rest of their lives. The two of them find new, separate jobs, and after a while Jimmy’s stalker, Hector (Nick Swardsdon), tells...

Friday, January 17, 2020

Food and Safety Bulletin Essay

Public service bulletin, it has been reported to the city department of health on how the communicate is experiencing numerous of food-borne illnesses. However, the food-borne illnesses have raised some serious for the health department and in dealing with this illnesses the community needs to be educated on public food safety. Recognizing several common concerns connected to food purchase, storage, and presentation, explains several illnesses or crises the safety problem may affect to avoid the illnesses or crises and recommendation for where person who reads may search for more information. Include criteria that readers must use to determine creditable sources of information, explain why it is important for readers to use criteria when searching for information on nutrition (Wardlaw, Smith, 2009). Identify Common Safety Issues However, food poisoning can produce critical illness, but individuals can protect themselves and their family. In other word germs such as E.coli, salmonella, and listeria usually cause food poisoning. However, these pathogens usually relates with meat and fowl products, although the pathogens are capable of making their way into fresh produce through disaster or accidents while they are harvested, within the resource where they are managed or in local grocery store. Meanwhile, cheese may be contaminated with pathogens, but cheese and produce also has been subject as a food recall. * When shopping for groceries please consider recent recall items. Some stories may come through the news to reach community, so pay close attention to those stories, and remember them while making out a grocery list. Please be mindful that recall food take place on a regular basis however, recalls frequently affects a minor portion of food in certain area. * Before purchasing food inspect it as well as ma king sure meat, poultry, produce and cheese has its proper color and no detectable signs of grime. Pay attention to cheese and vegetables when attempting to eat raw however, cooking is simply a good way to go to be sure pathogens have been destroy. * One must store their poultry, meat, and cheese in the refrigerator or freezer as soon as they arrive home. However, the refrigerator must maintain a temperature less than 40 degrees and the freezer, however, has to maintain a temperatures of less than 32 degrees. Some produce items are not requiring being in the refrigerator but it is when the grocery store kept these specific food item at a cooler temperature. However, please keep in mind people should clean their vegetables thoroughly before cooking. Although it is not required to wash meat or poultry products prior to cooking, but always keep in mind to clean vegetables and wash their skins with a scrub brush prior to eating. * In addition, to this be sure to cook carefully as well as being mindful of cross-contamination threats each time a meal is prepared. Be sure to use d ifferent cutting boards and knives when cutting up meat and vegetables. Another important fact makes sure different cooking utensils are used for uncooked and cooked foods, mainly meats. Make certain everything he or she prepare to cook research a safe inside temperature that changes bases on the certain food item a person is cooking. Describe Illnesses or Problems Safety However, restoring the loss of fluid and electrolytes as well as maintaining the fluid intake are worthy. When cooking meat, poultry, and eggs please cook these products well-done. Cross contamination with food is not healthy way to cook which, means avoid cross-contaminating foods by means of washing hands, cooking tools, cutting boards after these utensils has been used for raw meat as well as poultry and prior to the of another food. Be sure to wash all produce. In other word, wash all fresh fruits and vegetables in running tap water to eliminate noticeable and unnoticeable grimes and dirt. At a room temperature bacteria can grow very fast, refrigerate food leftover if not eaten within four hours. Credible Source of Nutritional Information However, there is resource that community rely on such as MyPyramid.gov, WeightWatcher.com and MayoClinic.com however, these sites or very helpful for you and your family. It shows the portions amount one must content on their plate as well as their intake. This information would help the community understands the safety issues when grocery shopping and cooking different type of foods. References Michaelson, A. (2011, May ). How to Identtify Some Common Safety Issues Related to Food Purchase, Storage and Preparation. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from eHow.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

My Favorite Vacation to the Last Frontier, Fairbanks,...

As a child, vacations were few and far between. Having three other siblings and a single parent, trips rarely fit into the budget. As I got older, military service and my professional career allowed me to travel to a variety of places. I have been to the east and west coasts, the Gulf of Mexico, Bermuda, United Kingdom, Germany, and many places in between. However, my most memorable trip was to Fairbanks, Alaska to visit my oldest brother Keith. While I was there the sun shined for approximately twenty hours a day, the mosquitos were unlike anything I had ever experienced, and we went fishing on the Yukon River. During the summer months in Alaska, the sun shines for about 20 hours a day. All the daylight was nice, but could cause problems†¦show more content†¦Within seconds after getting out of the truck, they were all over me. I kicked a nearby bush and hundreds of mosquitos flew out of it. My brother and his friends acted as if it was not that bad, I guess a person can get used to anything, but I was having one of the worst experiences of my life. Surprisingly it was not the bite of the mosquitoes, but the menacing noise and what seemed like impending doom. Fortunately, the mosquitoes subsided once we got out on the water. Fishing on the Yukon River was sensational. We started with an hour and a half boat ride up stream to get to our fishing destination. Even though it was the middle of summer the temperature on the river was cold. I watched in amazement, as a bald eagle plucked a fish from the river. Even more incredible was the shear sense of immenseness. We stopped at an inlet to the Yukon River, and that is where we did most of our fishing. We were fishing for Northern Pike and in order to keep them, they had to be between 32 and 46 inches in length. It seemed like everything we caught was either under or over the legal length, but it was still fun catching them. I was so excited about being in Alaska, on the Yukon River, and with my brother, I did not mind releasing most of our catch. After many hours of fishing we decided we had enough for the day. Instead of heading back to the dock to clean the fish, we filleted the fish in the middle of the river so we did not have to get back inShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesDiversity Management Strategies 56 Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees 56 †¢ Diversity in Groups 58 †¢ Effective Diversity Programs 58 Summary and Implications for Managers 60 S A L Self-Assessment Library What’s My Attitude Toward Older People? 40 Myth or Science? â€Å"Dual-Career Couples Divorce Less† 47 An Ethical Choice Religious Tattoos 51 glOBalization! Images of Diversity from Around the Globe 54 Point/Counterpoint Men Have More Mathematical Ability Than Women